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How does Google "corrode" academia?

via:博客园     time:2017/7/18 17:03:06     readed:2088


According to: All along, Google will be "no evil" as their own creed, but the Wall Street Journal has recently opened this search giant hypocritical mask. Reported that Google through private acquisition of professors, sponsorship research, policy marketing, etc. to seize the right to speak.

The Wall Street Journal reported that over the past 10 years, Google has funded hundreds of research papers aimed at defending a series of regulatory challenges against it, and each paper will receive $ 5,000 to $ 400,000 in compensation. Including Harvard and the University of California at Berkeley, including top universities have received Google's sponsorship.

Lei Feng net on the original compiled as follows:

When necessary, Google will play its influence in academia, so that the formulation of relevant policies and regulations in favor of their own direction.

The Wall Street Journal has received thousands of pages of secret messages, which show that more than a dozen researchers in the university before the published papers, and even specifically to find Google to seek advice. However, after the posting of the paper, the researchers rarely mentioned Google's funding, and the search giants have money, which is the majority of professors can not say the secret.

For example, Paul Heald, a professor at the University of Illinois School of Law, presented a copyright-friendly Google idea in terms of copyright, and later he received $ 1,830. When the paper was published in 2012, Heald did not mention the sponsor.

In an interview, Heald said it was purely a negligence, he said that these funds did not affect their work, Google did not open any exchange conditions. He said, Google's head just said, if you take this $ 20,000 to open a home donut shop, we will not give you money later, but there is no problem. & Rdquo;

According to Google lobbyists before the staff broke the news, for several years, Google will directly list a wish list of academic papers, which have tentative title, summary and budget, and then they will find the author willing to write.

In addition, Google will recommend their own papers to government officials, and sometimes they will provide travel for the professors so that they directly meet with Congress or government officials. In 2012, Google's defense counsel gave the FTC president a paper on the hope that with the help of academics to dispel the intensified antitrust investigation.

Last month, the European Union announced a fine of $ 2.71 billion against Google, the reason is that Google in the search results to give priority to show their own services, this is suspected of monopoly. However, Google denied the EU's allegations.


Spend money to buy papers have become industry rules

In fact, spending money to support their own lobbying team is one of the hidden ways for Silicon Valley to influence policymakers, and it is becoming a new lobby for secrecy in Washington's tightly regulated environment, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to detect.

"Google has been working closely with universities and research institutes, and Google has been respecting their independence and integrity," he said. "We have been working closely with universities and research institutes since Google has graduated from Stanford Computer Institute. We are pleased to support the work of academic researchers in a number of areas, which will not only help them to speak, but also support the principles of open Internet. & Rdquo;

Last year, Google earned about $ 80 billion through advertising sales, and its main product is only 7, and the monthly active users are more than 1 billion. StatCounter data show that Google search accounted for 90% of the global online search share. Strategy Analytics data show that in the smart phone market, Andrews equipment sales this year will reach 1.3 billion units, the largest opponent iPhone sales of only 200 million.

With its subsidiaries across all walks of life, Google has access to almost all of the details of our daily life, and your search history and whereabouts are in its hands, and these data related to user preferences have huge potential for cash.

In order to avoid public criticism, Google bought the paper, often referred to the consumer to take data for free service is not loss. In addition, these papers will emphasize that Google has not taken advantage of market dominance, the user to their own commercial sites or advertisers there, as to combat the accusations of competitors, Google is also wronged.

The Wall Street Journal also found that some papers for Google search directly linked to other people's intellectual property works. News Corp. News Corp has protested to the European Union about Google's processing of news content in search results.

After analyzing the data provided by Campaign for Accountability, a team that opposes Google, its sponsors, including Google rival Oracle, the report found that since 2009, Google has sponsored about 100 articles related to public policy.

This is not all, because there are 100 papers also have money to suspend the suspects, the author of these papers collected a number of think tanks or university research center money, and they are behind Google or other technology companies. As mentioned earlier, these papers are left to those who are behind the funding support.

Earlier in the Google lobby team employees broke the news that Google funding papers only spent a few million dollars, which for the Japanese gold search giant is nothing. Some academic experts said that the professors to take some of these money more harm than good, such papers written more, it will make people feel that the academic community is actually lobbyists, did not devote themselves to research. & Rdquo;

Even if the scholars admitted that they took a company's sponsorship, will also leave a conflict of interest in the image, which greatly affected the academic credibility.

"For academic research, money is really a good thing, but it has hindered the objectivity of academic research. "Said Daniel Crane, a professor of law at the University of Michigan. He said he declined to Google's good intentions, and he is the search engine antitrust laws and regulations of the field of experts. "If I see a paper after the emergence of stakeholders, the object of this paper have to make a big discount. & Rdquo;

In fact, in the food, pharmaceutical and oil industries, it is already well known to influence American public policy. Many medical schools, scientific researchers and journalists have been scandalous, so flawed whether they get stakeholder funding, has become a convention.

And now technology companies are also very active in funding academic research. Microsoft has sponsored Harvard professor Ben Edelman, who has commented on Google's abuse of market position. Chip giant Qualcomm will sponsor the paper, to their own and Google's patent war to increase the weight. Communications giants Verizon and AT & amp; T also did not pass the paper with Google. For these secret means, companies involved to deny and refuse to comment.

Recent documents show that Google is also trying to recruit like-minded researchers are also racking their brains, in order not to give their feet, they assigned the task to the trade group, think tanks and consulting firms.

Take money for disaster

Google has collected a lot of data from more than 1 billion users, and these data have been analyzed and fed back from search to YouTuber video recommendations to online advertising. And the control of user data has caused the attention of the anti-monopoly sector.

Earlier this year, Daniel Sokol, a professor at the University of Florida Law School, published a paper saying that Google's application to these data was legal. Google does not need to worry about the use of data. "Sokol also made it clear that his own support for Google is not because of the money received.

Interestingly, the Wall Street Journal's e-mails show that Sokol has a close economic relationship with Google, a part-time lawyer at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & amp; Rosati, and Google is one of the big clients of the firm. In addition, this article published in the 2016 paper, its co-author is also a partner of this law firm.

In fact, in 2013, Sokol and Google in the honeymoon period, and in a webinar, he actively spoke to Google side of the speech. In March of the same year, he also helped Google Public Relations Leader Paul Shaw persuade a professor of law to write a paper for a patent-based webinar. After the seminar, Sokol sent Google a $ 5,000 invoice.

In September 2013, Sokol worked with Google's senior lawyer Rob Mahini to plan a webinar for a patent issue. Mahini selected some of his favorite professors, so Sokol help to persuade them to participate.

The message revealed in the e-mail shows that it is not easy for persuading professors to write papers for the seminar, and Sokol wants Google to provide the " However, Sokol refused to explain his intention. Google claims that there is no funding for professors, and Mahini directly refuses to comment.

After the seminar, a Google assistant sent an email to Sokol asking for a question, and he replied that $ 5,000 was the same as last time. & Rdquo;

For the above, Sokol said he did not accept the sponsorship, if took the money, will be written in the paper clearly.


Infringement of patent can also be washed

Google's Android system has been the target of patent infringement, Oracle, Apple and Microsoft have been to court, and interesting is that both sides involved in the litigation have their own academic support.

Jorge Contreras, a professor of law at the University of Utah, is advocating a more lenient interpretation of the US patent law. Since 2013, Contreras has published several papers on patent issues, two of which explicitly refer to Google's sponsorship, while the rest of the paper did not appear the name of the search giant.

In June 2015, Google hosted a seminar in Washington, DC, responsible for organizing Contreras. The conference demonstrated Google's generosity on patent issues, allowing other companies to use their patents. At the time, Contreras also expressed the hope that Google officials and lawyers friends to actively feedback and comments.

In an interview, Contreras said that because Google provided funding for the seminar, so he forwarded the paper to each other, and in the academic community to invite others to their own papers some feedback is normal, even if the paper is to give feedback the company. "Google is an expert in the field and I write about them, so I'm glad they can give feedback." & Rdquo;

Just one month before the seminar, Google also privately held a brief about the patent law, there are many participants are influential people on public policy, and these people are Google care. Google paid travel expenses for Contreras, giving the company an introduction to the company's patent sharing.

For Google to spend money on professors, Contreras says the money is not meant to change their position, just to support the research. "I do not think it's disgraceful, Google just looking for people." & Rdquo;

Trusted academic allies

In 2010, Google hired Deven Desai, a professor of law and technology at Princeton University, who was writing a thesis.

According to Desai, in the next two years, he spent $ 2 million on seminars and papers, and the authors received between $ 2 and $ 150,000.

In September 2012, FTC was considering whether to initiate antitrust lawsuit against Google. After hearing the news, Wilson Sonsini of Google's legal department sent an F-8 President's letter to the company to defend the company, which cited a number of Google-supported papers, including Google-funded.

After leaving Google in 2012, Desai became a professor of law at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He admitted that his job was to make a list of public policy influence for Google to persuade the department to know who should be. According to him, Ryan Calo, a researcher at Stanford University, took the top prize of $ 400,000 in 2010. His paper discusses how to protect the user's network privacy.

Google and other technology companies will collect user information, but some of the data is not willing to share the user. However, they will use the lengthy obscure terms to allow users to read, so some scholars recommend taking a new strategy to limit the abuse of user information. Calo is also in line with the trend of scholars, but his new program is clearly more favorable to Google.

With regard to the $ 400,000 remuneration, Calo said Google gave the money to Stanford, and he said he had mentioned Google's funding in both papers. However, the mail content shows that, before and after the release of the paper, Calo has maintained a frequent contact with Google.

In the e-mail, Calo roughly tells the outline of his thesis and the focus of the mentioned, Google an official in the e-mail reply: "I would like to know in the paper you can specifically talk about the issue of government monitoring. Professor Calo in the paper criticized the government after the issue of government monitoring, Google spokesman also tried to arrange his NPR program to talk about this issue. But in the end this thing did not do, but obviously Google is in the transfer of attention.

Professor Calo, now a professor at the University of Washington, said that it was normal to discuss the issues that were mentioned in the paper, which would ensure the accuracy of the paper. If you want to expand the influence of the paper in academia, it is important to seek the views of the companies involved in the relevant issues. & Rdquo;


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