Editor's Note: Tencent Technology and the high-quality technology media launched "5G Bureau Central Bureau" special topic, for you to interpret 5G applications in communications, Internet of Things, Internet of Vehicles, industrial networking, edge computing, cloud services, etc., in-depth analysis of 5G What impact will technology have on the competitive landscape of the industry.
Today, this article, mainly discussing the failure of German Industry 4.0, can China successfully achieve industrial networking by 5G?
Author: Five Moments stone
Industrial IoT technology began in the United States, in Germany, and in 5G.
In 2011, Germany took the lead in proposing the concept of industrial Internet of Things; in 2013, Germany officially established the goal of relying on the CPS system to create the “Industrial Internet of Things”, and called this program “Industry 4.0”.
CPS full name Cyber-Physical Systems, Chinese translation for "information physics system", is a global IoT technology solution originating from the 3G era. According to the technical plan, including the CPS IoT chip and CPS to the chip data operation terminal.
After the birth of CPS technology, the US Congress highlighted the CPS program in a research report in 2005; in February 2006, the US Competitiveness Program listed CPS as an important research project; in July 2007, the US President’s Science and Technology The Advisory Board once again listed CPS as the number one influencing the next ten key technologies.
Therefore, the Internet of Things technology, which was born in the 3G network period, was finally popularized by the wealthy master of Germany in 2013 with the popularity of 4G networks. And this set off for a while, the global industrial Internet of Things movement, and called it Industry 4.0.
From the past six years in 2013, the global media has rarely mentioned “Industry 4.0”, what is the progress?
In 2019, with the maturity of 5G technology and NB-IoT IoT solution, the “Industrial Internet of Things” solution in the 4G era will bring to China's “Industrial Internet of Things” in the 5G era. Revelation?
If we realize the “Industrial Internet of Things”, what changes will happen to our ordinary people?
German Industry 4.0
2013 was a special year in the history of China's communications development, when China just started building 4G networks, and at the end of the year, 16 cities had 4G networks. At the same time as China's 4G network infrastructure construction, Germany started the construction of 4G network, and proposed the concept of building 4G industrial Internet of Things with CPS system.
Although Europe was just experiencing the 2008 financial crisis, EU member states have already begun to have a debt crisis. However, Germany has rarely created a minimum unemployment rate of nearly 20 years in 2012, and the economy is a good one.
As a result, the EU's economic engine, in order to continue to maintain its own industrial competitiveness, in the European continent, "self-consideration" set up a "4G network era of the Industrial Internet of Things" action, codename "ld"; Industry 4.0”.
Industry 4.0 is also known as the fourth industrial revolution in the world, according to Wikipedia data:
The initial steam power was seen as the first industrial revolution; later power and mass production assembly techniques were the hallmarks of the second industrial revolution; Industry 3.0 allowed robots and computers to enter the factory; and Industry 4.0 took everything. Synthesize a self-learning, self-correcting system.
Therefore, in the planned route of German Industry 4.0, the factory upgraded to “Industry 4.0” can form a smart factory alliance through the CPS system.
According to the German plan in Industry 4.0, all plant equipment data is aggregated on the CPS system, so in addition to predicting the length of work each machine needs to maintain, the CPS system can also arrange the appropriate work tasks for the machine equipment. Ensure the optimal quality and speed of the products produced by the major plants under the CPS system.
In the planning of “Industry 4.0” in Germany, the CPS Industrial IoT solution, in addition to resource allocation optimization and data monitoring functions, its ultimate vision is to replace the labor work of most workers and realize the “autonomy of the machine”. ;
The test field before 5G, the loss of CPS
Carrying such a grand technical vision, and allowing the German national Stud CPS technology is naturally not "leisure generation".
In 2013, in addition to the touts of major institutions in the United States from 2005 to 2007, CPS technology can also find some shadows in practical applications, such as Boeing, Airbus, Audi and Mercedes-Benz in ultra-modern factories. Type of castrated CPS system.
The reason why they are called castration is because the CPS applications of these factories are small hardware systems associated with mechanical devices, which often only process the operational data of this machine. The CPS that Germany wants to bet on is the “Industrial Internet of Things” formed by the interconnection of numerous machines.
Different from the embedded CPS system, the “Industrial Internet of Things” version of CPS can automatically analyze and adjust the working content of the factory machine in addition to knowing the machine conditions of all the factories, so that the machines in the whole system can achieve operational efficiency. Maximizing, so its complexity is thousands of times more than the original embedded CPS system.
Based on the complexity of the CPS system, the CPS practice case exists only in a distributed robot garden at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and there is no large-scale industrial landing application.
However, in Germany, in order to obtain the dividend of Industrial Internet of Things before the arrival of 5G, the German Machinery Association and Manufacturers Association (VDMA) also established the “Industry 4.0 Platform” for the construction of the CPS system. .
Soon after, the German Institute of Electrical, Electronics and Information Technology released Germany's first industrial 4.0 standardization roadmap, making the entire construction of the “Industrial Internet of Things” around CPS look quite formal.
But dare to take the initiative to advance, but ultimately lost in the innovation of the times technology.
In 2015, first-line companies in the IC field, such as Intel, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, and Huawei, launched the NB-IoT IoT technology that can access 5G networks in the Internet of Things. In 2016, with the increase in the number of companies supporting NB-IoT IoT technology, the world has largely abandoned the CPS IoT solution that is only discussed in academic journals.
At this point, the CPS IoT chip related to the CPS system has become an isolated object of technological exploration with the turn of the IC giant.
The killing of CPS technology, in addition to the cost-benefit CPS chip NB-IoT IoT solution, is also related to Amazon, IBM, Microsoft and Google, which are aware of the importance of cloud computing in the future 5G era.
Early cloud computing was simple and only complementary to CPS. However, with the technological advancement of cloud computing and the integration with the NB-IoT IoT solution, cloud computing has gradually replaced the data analysis capabilities of the CPS system in future planning.
Among them, in 2014, eight technical experts in mechanical automation, through the book "Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems", predicted the fact that "cloud-based physical networking solutions" will be the future IoT operating system. .
After the publication of this book, many industrial clouds replaced the CPS industrial IoT program. In 2015, a scholar deduced the death of the CPS system from a technical perspective.
So even if Germany is not smart, it can be perceived by the post: “CPS's industrial Internet of Things and Internet of Things solutions have been abandoned by the world”.
At this time, Germany's own insistence on doing the results, nothing more than two, one is to spend a lot of effort to do a 5G era of antique industrial IoT program; the second is to achieve half of the cost Halfway through, hundreds of millions of dollars to buy a "closed door to build a car" lesson.
In 2017, Cisco announced a survey of German factories. The survey results show that 76% of German factories believe that the “Industry 4.0 Program” has failed because they have never participated in any of the “Industry 4.0” organization.
In July 2018, Gartner released the 2018 Industrial IoT Report, where companies such as transportation, manufacturing, utilities, and natural resources did not have any companies participating in the “Industry 4.0” standard.
Therefore, the tornado that once wrapped in “big data, smart industry and the fourth industrial revolution” was gradually forgotten as time passed.
Until the 5G standard was initially established in the last two years, people think of it. In the 3G and 4G era, there was an industrial IoT technology solution called CPS.
China's industrial IoT process before 5G
At the same time, all major companies in Germany and the United States are engaged in “Industrial Internet of Things”. Since everyone does not have 5G technology, Chinese companies are naturally not idle.
However, compared with Germany, when we put forward the “Industrial Internet of Things”, we only used the exploration mode of “Industrial Park”.
This kind of compromise follows, on the one hand, the land of China, and on the other hand, the status quo of China's enterprises.
In 2016, with the goal of the Industrial Internet of Things in the “Made in China 2025”, the year was basically the most enthusiastic time for the discussion on the “Industrial Internet of Things”, and the frequency and coverage of the discussion was no less than 5G network in 2019.
Among them, the netizens in the "Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 in the domestic prospects" answer, according to a number of netizens (point of view summary):
The reason why China's manufacturing industry cannot currently carry the industrial Internet of Things on a large scale is that the Chinese factory is still dominated by the low-end manufacturing industry compared with the German factory.
The construction cost of the CPS system is very high, so Germany can explore the “Industrial 4.0” based on the lucrative profits of its high-end manufacturing industry and the perfect industrial standardization.
For China's current industrial status, the CPS system that requires enterprises to pay for their own money, first of all on the cost issue is doomed to become a national industrial Internet of Things program.
Forcing the construction of industrial IoT under the CPS system will only add new production costs to Chinese industrial products that are already in the Red Sea market. When the survival of enterprises is still the main problem, where most Chinese companies come from, Go for an attempt at technical exploration.
Therefore, the industrial park-style industrial Internet of Things exploration, although let us avoid the CPS big pit that Germany encountered in “Industry 4.0”, but if there is no new low-cost IoT solution, Chinese industrial enterprises also It will be crushed by the technology of German "Industry 4.0" for a long time.
Of course, fortunately, this rolling with the birth of the low-cost NB-IoT IoT solution has not become the fact that 5G is happening or has happened.
Because with the popularity of 5G, the Industrial Internet of Things will go out of the cost constraints of the laboratory and become the era dividend under the Internet of Everything.
5G has become a key turning point in the Industrial Internet of Things
There are two reasons why 5G can promote the popularity of industrial Internet of things: one is technical reasons, and the other is cost reasons.
From a technical perspective, the 5G ecosystem is now a replacement for the CPS IoT solution.
At the beginning of the CPS system, it was just an IoT technology solution carrying a 4G network. This technology solution integrates all the functions of “5C (connection, conversion, network, cognition and configuration), so even if it is complete The construction model, based on the complexity of technology, has so far failed to reach the ground.
In fact, as early as March 2015, the National Institutes of Health Sciences of the National Library of Medicine has included an academic literature on the comprehensive discussion of the CPS system. In this numerous professional technical literature, the authors of the literature directly The model demonstrates that the CPS system is not feasible in data conflict and technology construction.
In another article in our 5G era, who will be the biggest winner of IoT chips, the 5G ecosystem includes: Internet of Things, cloud computing and artificial intelligence.
Different from CPS's integration of 5C, 5G ecological IoT carries the link function, cloud computing carries the conversion and network functions, and finally the artificial intelligence carries the cognitive and configuration functions, and the three technologies are self-contained. At the same time, they are also glued to each other through 5G technology.
This makes the intelligent IoT landing more streamlined and convenient than CPS technology.
Based on the differences between the two technologies, the IoT chip technology that the giants are betting on is not the CPS chip, but the NB-IoT chip solution led by Huawei, Qualcomm and Ericsson in 2015. Therefore, from a technical point of view, the NB-IoT chip solution that can be integrated into the 5G network itself has already brought the future of the CPS system into a cold.
From a cost perspective, although the overall investment in the NB-IoT IoT solution is no less than CPS, the NB-IoT device will be incorporated into the 5G network of global telecom operators in the future, which makes the telecom operators directly become NB-IoT. The promoter of the Internet of Things program.
Therefore, compared with the CPS scheme, enterprises need to invest independently and independently. Not only the hardware construction telecom operators help the industrial enterprises to make a big profit, but even the supporting cloud computing services also have the technology giants to help build.
Among them, with the popularity of NB-IoT IoT devices, the price of building NB-IoT IoT hardware will gradually decrease. This allows the manufacturing enterprises in the late 5G ecological construction to use the industrial Internet of Things technology brought by the 5G ecosystem at zero cost in the future.
Behind this contrast, for the majority of enterprises, the advantages and disadvantages of both "industrial IoT solutions" are known at a glance.
Industrial Internet of Things under 5G
In the current industrial system, because we can't specify the specific material quantity, and we can't determine the error range in the material production, we often “storage waste”, “time waste” and “human waste”. Often only because of the production of a screw or an insignificant part.
When the Internet of Things system in the 5G era, the error problem of many “one screw” in the existing industrial system was solved by the Internet of Things system.
When all the factories and equipments are formed into profit-sharing industrial alliances due to the deployment of industrial cloud services, the foreseeable fact is that the orders we placed online 2 hours ago can be produced in the factory for half an hour, and then used for 1 hour. service.
At that time, the Jingdong product page, the label that was printed is no longer "Day of the day", but "when the day is ready to reach".
In addition to being fast, because of the reduction in logistics, warehousing and production costs, the non-luxury items you buy will receive better quality and lower prices.
And as the boundaries of the factory are broken, all the machines in the factory are integrated into an IoT system, and future industrial products will be modularized.
For example, all consumer complex electronic products before the order, 60% of the assembly in the main factory, the remaining 40% of the work, will be completed after your order from your nearest standard factory.
In this way, even if the last material is left, it is possible to flexibly combine 60% of the available parts in the next generation of product updates.
Behind this combination, the feeling for our consumers is:
The number of products you buy to belong to you will increase indefinitely. For example, when you gain weight, the food you buy will reduce the sugar content in advance, and the new tableware you buy will reduce the food carrying capacity in advance.
The red and black clothes you bought, the blue and black you like in advance, when everything is centered on the consumer's personal preferences, the way of business, society and economic organization will be rewritten.
However, this process is not a one-time process.
When the industry's "Internet of Things system" evolved to this: the business owner's investment will become "Industrial Internet of Things" alliance participation, corporate management will shift from worker management to data development management. At that time, the most valuable collateral property of the enterprise was not hardware, but the ownership and use of data.
In order to reconcile this contradiction, the CPS system has set up a voting system for companies that have joined the “Industrial Internet of Things”; in the 5G era, the processing of such data ownership is moving toward the distributed data center as the industrial cloud evolves. Evolving.
China's approach to German Industry 4.0
In April 2019, in the current situation where all industrial changes seem to have nothing to do with us, although Germany has encountered obstacles in Stud CPS technology's “Industry 4.0”, China can also achieve “industrial Internet of Things” through 5G popularization. ;
However, compared with Germany's movement in Industry 4.0, Chinese companies, whether it is a management model or a financial model, still have a lot of “non-industrial Internet of Things improvement space”, which is worthy of aligning with German companies.
For example, many companies in China have not even used the basic “Enterprise Resource Planning ERP”. Even with EPR, I don’t know how many companies are EPR for EPR.
This allows most of China's enterprises to be in a private offline mode. Not only do companies lack standardization for data interconnection, but as regional cultural differences increase, so does the degree of difference between management models and informationization.
The backwardness of this individual may be standardized in the storm of the 5G era, but technology can only save the technology, but can not optimize every enterprise core in the forefront of the times —
Therefore, the vacancy of domestic enterprises in management knowledge and business management talents should be far more important than the “industrial Internet of Things”.
On the other hand, Germany's Industry 4.0 plan, with its cold-eyed use, "shelved", the next conclusion, not to say: "The money is self-willed, technically capricious, talented and self-willed, is Germany dare to step ahead in the industrial world. Enter the bottom of the gas. ”
And these, in addition to the current delusions, when will we have the opportunity to follow up with cutting-edge technology?