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Does Google grab the hegemony of quantum computing?

via:虎嗅网     time:2019/9/22 14:11:00     readed:132

However, it has nothing to do with the traditional sense of "hegemony", but is used to shape the capacity of the computer compared to the traditional computer rolling level of the technological advantages. If the quantum computer can solve the problems that cannot be solved on the classical computer, no matter what the task itself is, whether it has practical significance or not, then it represents the realization of "quantum hegemony".

Whoever can first announce that quantum hegemony has been achieved will take the lead in the long run of quantum computing.

A small step for Google

According to the Financial Times, Google announced that it had built its first quantum computer, which can carry out computing power beyond today's most powerful supercomputer. The paper, by Google researchers, was published earlier this week on NASA's (NASA) website but was quickly deleted.

Fortune reported that a source familiar with Google said it would take weeks to months for this article to be reviewed, and NASA just accidentally released it early.

In this paper, a specific experiment is described, in which random sampling of numbers based on quantum phenomena is described. The researchers say they are convinced that quantum computers perform this task much better than conventional computers, which involve calculating the output of certain special circuits.

The quantum computer shows a terrifying computational power advantage, with the paper saying it can do it in three minutes and 20 seconds, while the world's number one supercomputer," Summit," takes about 10,000 years; at Google Cloud. [计] serveIt will take 50 trillion hours to perform the same experiment on the quantum processor and only 30 seconds on the quantum processor.

Researchers also predict that quantum computing power will "grow exponentially at twice the rate" and even exceed the exponential rate that defines Moore's law, a trend that observes that traditional computing power doubles about every two years.

Google researchers say this means that quantum computers can perform calculations that could not have been completed before, and that "quantum hegemony" has been achieved. If this paper is published successfully, it may become a milestone in the field of quantum computing.

The scale computer, named Sycamore, includes 53 quantum bits (Preskiel predicts that quantum hegemony will be achieved by a 50-bit quantum computer). In 2018, Google launched a general-purpose computer, Bristlecone, which includes 72 quantum bits. Google believes it has the ability to achieve quantum hegemony. According to the Quanta Magazine layer, Google's quantum processor exploded in less than half a year, and the reproduced devices were upgraded from notebooks to servers. Google's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (Quantum Artificial Laboratory)IntelHartmut Neven, director of ligence lab), proposed in May that quantum hegemony would be achieved in 2019.

At present, quantum computing is still in the race stage, which is also a showcase of each country's cutting-edge research and development capabilities.

Quantum computing is good, but don't rush.

With regard to quantum, the most famous is "Schrodinger's cat." just as the poor cat is in the "dead and living superposition state," the "0 and 1" of quantum computers can also be superimposed, as academician Guo Guangchan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences once explained the computational power of quantum computers. He said that qubits can prepare coherent superposition states of two logical states 0 and 1. In other words, it can store 0 and 1. In the ideal state, 50 qubits can perform the 50th power operation of 2 at a time.

Moore's law knows the development of computers. Every 18 months, the number of components that can be accommodated on the integrated circuit is about doubled, and the computing performance of the computer is also doubled. However, the development of traditional computers has entered a bottleneck. On Nani's scale, Moore's law has slowed down.

The emergence of quantum computing provides the possibility for the continued evolution of computing force. But there is a long way to go, and quantum computing is still in its development stage.

In October 2017, IBM successfully simulated 56 quantum bits on conventional supercomputers. In January 2018, Intel announced the successful development of 49-qubit test chips. Intel said that the distance between quantum computing and solving engineering scale problems may be 5 to 7 years. From a commercial point of view, quantum computing may require one million or more quantum bits to be of practical value.

The definition of "quantum hegemony" is that it is a task of identifying whether it has practical significance or not, and it has little significance in concrete application.

Some researchers also warn against exaggerating quantum hegemony, arguing that this does not mean that quantum machines will quickly surpass traditional computers and bring about a revolution in computing.

Dario Gil, IBM's research director, advised against using quantum hegemony as a measure of progress in the field, explaining to Fortune: "Almost everyone misunderstands this experiment and the word hegemony." He adds that quantum computers will not replace traditional computing, they are collaborative models.

Jim Clark (Jim Clarke), director of quantum hardware at Intel Labs, said the Google experiment was a milestone, but quantum computers need to continue to be developed for commercial landing: "although this marathon is still far ahead, we firmly believe in the potential of this technology."

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