On July 5 this year, a public announcement from the State Ministry of Natural Resources showed that Beijing Huawei Digital Technology Co., Ltd. was applying for Grade A qualification in the production of navigation electronic maps.
Huawei sounded the horn to enter the field of high-precision maps, and the industry was in an uproar.
Is it the wolf, or is the chance coming?
In fact, map service providers with high-quality mapping qualifications and capabilities have been the focus of competition among major Internet companies in recent years.
Take BAT as an example, the first to enter the bureau map market is Baidu, Baidu acquired Changdi Wanfang in 2013, announced the official entry.
Tencent followed suit in 2014 by buying 11.28 per cent of the company for $1.1 billion, becoming its second-largest shareholder.
In the same year, Ali bought Gauder directly for $1.5 billion.
With Huawei and the American League announcing successively the development of their own map services, there are still many new forces in this field.
Is the high-precision map a huge cake yet to be developed, or has it become the Red Sea of the giants?
So, what are the characteristics of the manufacturer can laugh to the end? And when will the countdown to the competition ring?
01 High Precision Map
The battle of high-precision maps has never been an easy war.
First of all, because the map industry involves state secrets, to draw high-precision maps independently, it must have relevant qualifications, and there are only a few companies with this qualification in China.
From the new four-dimensional map in 2001 to the first navigation electronic map making (Grade A) qualification, as of March 2019, only 18 units in the country have held this enviable one.
In fact, there are only five companies with complete maps and capabilities, namely, Four-dimensional Mapping, Golden Map, Baidu Map, Easy Map and Kailide Map.
18 manufacturers with Grade A surveying and Mapping qualification
However, for high-precision map manufacturers, obtaining the qualification of Grade A surveying and mapping is only the first step of the long March, and the financial resources are the first step.
To understand why this is the case, it is necessary to clarify the difference between high-precision maps and general navigation maps.
The general navigation map relies on GPS positioning, the accuracy error is within 10 ≤ 15 meters, and the map elements are also relatively single.
The high-precision map can reduce the error to about 15-20 centimeters. It can also specify the specific lane width, the location of street lights, traffic lights, roadblocks and so on.
In addition, because the high-precision map is provided to the driverless vehicle, and the autopilot system can not deal with emergencies and information urgently, the high-precision map almost needs to be updated continuously.
In addition, there is no formal industry standard for high-precision maps in the world, which also makes it difficult for cartographers to collect high-precision data.
The difference between high precision map and traditional map mainly comes from the difference of using object.
Initial high-cost investment determines the need for high-precision map manufacturers to have strong financial strength, but also determines that the development of start-up companies is more difficult.
It can be seen that the layout of BAT should not be ignored among 18 manufacturers with surveying and mapping qualification.
_Manufacturers with Grade A Surveying and Mapping Qualifications and the BAT giants behind them
02 Why do cartographers perform better than the market expects?
In many cases, high-precision maps are often discussed with automatic driving bindings. In fact, this association is not accurate.
For self-driving cars of class L2 and below, the high-precision map is
According to the current automatic driving planning and industry survey published by various car companies, 2021 is the first year of L3 level automatic driving vehicle production.
However, two years in advance of mass production of self-driving vehicles, high-precision map suppliers need to be identified.
Therefore, Guotai Jun'an Computer Team judges that 2019 will be a year when high-precision map orders land intensively.
Major car companies announce autopilot planning plan L 3 landing time 2020 2021
So, why is it that the performance of high-precision map manufacturers is likely to be better than market expectations?
First, because the high cost of high precision map investment focuses on the equipment purchase and collection of early mapping, the basic data only needs to be updated and maintained after the basic data is complete, so the input of high precision map presents the nonlinear characteristics of high precision map first and then low.
In fact, in order to save costs, in the process of producing high-precision maps, cartographers generally use high-precision collection vehicles to complete the initial drawing of maps (from
_High-precision map acquisition vehicles are divided into professional, industrial and crowdsourcing types.
Therefore, the number of orders landed in the early 2022 has a great impact on the income space of the high-precision map industry, and after 2022, the income will gradually come from the growth of new vehicles and stock vehicles in L3.
With the increase of the number of high-precision map pre-loads, the fixed cost of cartographers is gradually diluted, and the profit margin will also be increased.
Under normal circumstances, the revenue space contribution of L 3 high precision map
Secondly, the data updates can be completed by using the automobile loaded with high-precision maps, which can effectively reduce the cost.
In the traditional view, the updating service of high-precision map needs to hire crowdsourcing vehicles to update it in real time.
But in practical application, the auto-driving vehicle with high-precision map is equipped with a traffic recorder, which can collect data information and send it back to the cartographer to complete the update, and no longer need to employ other vehicles.
As a result, priority buyers of high-end car factory orders can use cars with high-precision maps and CarLog to dynamically update data, reduce costs faster, and then reduce prices to attract low-end car factories, expanding their advantages.
This is very important for understanding the future high-precision map industry pattern.
The closing period of the 03 window is a little earlier than expected.
How to differentiate the high-precision map market pattern, we think it depends mainly on two points
Industry barriers include license barriers, capital barriers and technical barriers, while landing orders refer to the key period of deciding the future competition pattern in 2019-2020, in which the advantage of the manufacturer who can get the landing orders first will be further expanded.
The market pattern of high precision map depends on industry barriers and landing orders.
Looking at the market share of China's pre-loading navigation shipments in 2018,
Four-dimensional Tuxin, Gauder and Yitutong account for 93.42% of the market share.
_In 2018, the four-dimensional market of vehicle front-loading navigation accounted for 38.11%, ranking first.
At present, there are three kinds of high-precision map manufacturers who take orders from the whole vehicle enterprises:
At present, only Wanfang (Baidu), Amap and Siwei Tu have won new orders.
Considering the cost of bicycles and target consumers (most of the auto-driving enterprises that have announced the auto-driving plan at present are middle-and-high-end ones), L3-level auto-driving will give priority to landing high-end models of high-end brands (such as Audi A6, Audi A8, Mercedes-Benz S-class, BMW I series, assuming only), and then gradually penetrate into middle-and low-end brands and low-end ones. Brand models.
For those firms with strong financial strength, the key factor for signing orders depends on the technical level and service quality provided by high-precision map manufacturers, which are relatively insensitive to price. Therefore, price war has little influence on the early competition pattern of high-precision map.
As a result, with technical advantages, the high - end car factory orders already have a huge advantage in this competition, left to latecomers.