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Why China's 5G popularity will lead the United States: cheaper stations, more suitable spectrum

via:博客园     time:2019/10/7 8:31:44     readed:86


A young man is surfing the Internet with a smartphone in Tongguan Village, Liping County, Guizhou Province.

Technology news, October 7th, according to foreign media reports, although the US wireless operators are launching 5G commercial services in American cities. But China plans to provide 5G commercial services to all cities in the country by the end of next year, and then promote it in other parts of the country. Chinese wireless operators are rapidly spreading the 5G network across the country with lower base station construction costs, better 5G spectrum resources and more convenient facilities and facilities sharing. China is taking the lead in the competition for 5G dominance.

The following is the full text of the translation:

This is Tongguan Village, Liping County, Guizhou Province, China. A small river flows through this misty mountain village. Villagers'wooden houses were scattered along both sides of the river, and chickens, ducks, cats and dogs were mixed together on the road.

The remote mountain village in southwestern China has seen the future ahead of big cities such as Boston or Philadelphia. Two years ago, a Chinese state-owned wireless operator briefly launched an ultra-high-speed 5G cellular network to broadcast songs and dances of the Dong minority.

This is also the bold part of the Chinese government's plan to launch the next generation of wireless technology. Government leaders around the world say the next generation of wireless technology could trigger the next industrial revolution.

5G is the abbreviation of the fifth generation wireless network and is expected to be the core driving force in the future. 5G network connection speed is expected to be 100 times faster than the current 4G network, which will make it possible to innovate applications such as autopilot cars, machine factories and remote surgery. Since 5G will cover all areas, the countries that dominate the technology are likely to make huge profits, attract top engineering talent, and have an absolute advantage in key future technologies.

Some telecom industry leaders say the Chinese government is ready to push ahead with the technology in the coming months.

Although the US wireless operators are launching 5G services one by one from one city to another, China<#comment>It is planned to provide 5G commercial services in all cities above the prefectural level in the country by the end of next year, and then expand to the rest of the country. <#comment>A local manager of an operator estimated that even the lack of a modern foundation of the Tongguan village in the county of Xian could also build a super high-speed 5G network by 2021.

As has been done in the construction of the high-speed rail network and the Olympic infrastructure, the Chinese government has cleared up the red tape for the 5G project, and the regulators, governments at all levels and the three major state-owned wireless operators have been working together.


It is estimated that the number distribution of 5G base stations at the end of 2019 and the comparison of investment in base station construction between China and the United States in 2023. Analysts say China will win the lead in the construction and investment of base stations.

In the United States, residents often complain about new base stations, and Washington's strategy is far from uniform. The White House has yet to take important steps to get valuable high-quality 5G bands from the U. S. military, while Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 's measures to speed up 5G have actually created infighting between Washington, the city government and private wireless operators. Major wireless operators are also suing each other.

U.S. government officials and local wireless industry leaders say they are clearing the way and the United States will remain a leader in 5G. They cited predictions that a larger proportion of Americans will use 5G technology in the next few years than in China.

Brandon, member of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) responsible for wireless infrastructure

In June, the Chinese government issued 5G licences to wireless operators, several months earlier than expected. A few days later, he signed the first major contracts for 5G equipment, which won the most contracts. And China Unicom said that they are discussing joint construction and sharing of 5G system, which will save costs and speed up construction.


Tongguancun's 4G network has changed villagers' lives, with many older villagers taking smartphones and videos of relatives and friends who work far away in the city.

Just as the US pioneering 4G network has helped the Uber and social networking site Instagram reach the global peak, 5G may also bring strong impetus to some Chinese companies.

Of course, first of all, the introduction of new technology does not mean to have everything. The Soviet Union defeated the United States in sending humans into space, but did not land astronauts on the moon; European countries pioneered the use of cellular networks in the 1990s, but it was American companies that United to dominate today's mobile Internet technology.

US government officials and telecommunications industry leaders say the US is now beating China in consumer oriented 5G device websites. They say that even if China is ahead in quantity, the quality of the US network may be even higher, providing higher speed and reliability for the most complex 5G technologies such as remote operation and virtual reality.


A young man walks along the main road of Tongguancun village, bowing his head and fiddling with his smartphone.

FCC Chairman Akit

FCC leaders said federal regulators had approved the merger of T-Mobile USA and Sprint, but were still awaiting the outcome of the state lawsuit, which should help speed up the construction of a 5G network in the United States. These two telecom operators, as well as AT,

The cost of building a base station is lower

U.S. wireless operators are expected to spend between $284 billion and $179.8 billion on capital spending on 5G between 2018 and 2025, far more than their Chinese counterparts, according to GSMAi, a research arm of the global wireless trading group. But Stephen, an analyst at Dell'Oro Group), a telecommunications research firm,

These base stations contain antennas and other hardware, which constitute the backbone of modern communication networks. Base stations are usually located on separate radio transmitter towers along expressways, or on roof poles. Similar to Wi-Fi routers, these base stations connect to the Internet via cables and transmit signals wirelessly to users'mobile phones.

By the end of this year, China will have at least 150000 5G wide area base stations available to the public, more than any other country, Bernstein's Ryan said. Bernstein estimates that South Korea will rank second with 75000 such base stations, while the United States will have 10, 000 5G base stations by the end of this year.


Two young girls in Tongguan village are connected with their smartphones to watch videos.

In the United States, wireless operators often spend billions of dollars on government-run 5G wireless spectrum auctions. Then they will have to spend billions of dollars building base station towers to lease property. They then need to spend billions of dollars to build communication base stations and install the hardware equipment needed for 5G base stations.

In contrast, the Chinese government provides operators with spectrum and infrastructure to build base stations at lower prices. In this way, China's strategy is more efficient than that of the United States.

The spectrum resources obtained are better.

At present, the US government has reserved two parts of spectrum for 5G network. One of them can make the signal of the communication base station transmit several kilometers, but the speed is not much faster than that of the 4G network. The other part of the spectrum is of general concern to wireless operators in the United States. This kind of radio spectrum allows the base station to compress and transmit data wirelessly at ultra-fast speed, but the transmission distance is only tens of meters.

China's telecommunications regulator has focused on a third piece of spectrum, which executives and experts in the telecommunications industry refer to as the spectrum's

<#comment>Vice President of 5G Product Line<#comment>Zhu Huimin said:

The U.S. military, video broadcasting satellite operators and others hold most of these coveted mid-frequency bands. In April, a Pentagon Advisory Committee recommended that the military share these bands with wireless operators, while satellite operators proposed selling some bands to wireless operators for billions of dollars.


The children in the village are playing games with their smartphones online.

Members of the FCC said that the agency is working with satellite operators to liberate these bands, so that the US wireless carriers may eventually have more bands than China.

Equipment facilities can be easily shared among different operators

In order to transmit 5G signals, China is reusing the existing 4G signal towers, and requires operators to share signal towers. In addition, China is rebuilding and reusing street lamps and other street facilities.

FCC set a strict last yea

Chinese operators will also build new towers, and once the ideal plot has been identified, it will not take long.

China Tower, a state-owned enterprise responsible for building a base station for three Chinese wireless operators, says it builds base stations on state-owned land.


The 4G base station built on the top of the mountain can cover the whole Tongguan village.

And in the United States, about 95% of the sites and roofs for building base stations are privately owned, and the average rent of land is about $1300 per month. He said it usually takes one to six months from finding a suitable site to building a usable base station, but in rare cases, sometimes even two years. Although FCC is trying to speed up the process, the most frequent delay is getting permission from the municipal government.

In the United States, a typical steel base station costs $80,000. Because the regulatory authorities require three state-owned operators to share their base stations, three groups of antennas are often stacked together. In addition, operators also share power converters, optical cables and other equipment to reduce equipment and energy consumption costs.

American wireless operators sometimes share infrastructure. About 60 to 70 percent of base stations in the United States have more than one tenant, with an average of 1.5 tenants per base station, Schmitt said. But he said operators are often reluctant to share cables with other operators, forcing competitors to spend a lot of money opening up new lines to lay cables.

In addition, there is the cost of telecommunications equipment itself, including radio transmitters installed on signal towers, as well as giant routers and switches located in control rooms. Telecom operators spend $80 billion a year on this, and the biggest telecom equipment manufacturer in the world. Executives of European wireless operators say the hardware is often more advanced, cheaper, and cheaper than western competitors' devices by 20% or more.

Cost savings and red tape reduction processes mean that 5G wireless networks can provide services at a more reasonable price to Tongguancun and other remote areas in Guizhou Province. The Chinese government believes that providing wireless services can promote better interconnection, bring more economic opportunities and help eradicate poverty.

4G networks cover 97.3 percent of Guizhou, China, in the first half of 2019, according to Ookla, a Seattle Internet speed research firm. By contrast, the coverage of West Virginia in the United States is only 85.3%.

4G has improved the lives of Tongguan villagers, and many elderly residents are chatting with children working in cities in the evening. In 2013, the popularity of 4G services also led Wu Yinglei (Wu Yinglei) to quit her job in liquor making in the capital city, and went back to Tongguan village to open a company selling vegetables and homemade tomato chilli sauce. He uses his smart phone to sell agricultural products through an online shop.


Wu Yinglei, a local villager, resigned from his job in Guiyang and returned to Tongguan village to open a network company selling vegetables and homemade tomato chilli sauce.



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