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NASA Scientist: More than 40 years ago, humans discovered life on Mars.

via:博客园     time:2019/10/12 15:02:08     readed:79

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NASA Pirate's Art Concept Map

We know that humans have so far found no direct evidence of the existence of extraterrestrial life, but Gilbert of NASA (NASA)

Levin was NASA in the 1970s.

Nevertheless, more than 40 years later, Levin insisted that the Viking had found evidence of microbes on Mars. Today, Levin writes on the Scientific American website and tells us his point of view. The full text of the blog is translated as follows:

Now, man can trace the possible origin of the universe and master how nature controls the evolution, motion, and possible ultimate fate of celestial bodies. But at the same time, there is no widely accepted information about whether there is any other life outside the earth, and whether we are like Samuel, the British poet.The Rime of the Ancient Mariner) as stated in:

Human beings have only made a direct exploration of this issue, and I am fortunate to be involved in this historic adventure. This is the 1976 NASA. Label release(Labeled Release) test

On July 30,1976, the LR test returned the first batch of data.The results were positive.. The test was then continued and we saw four positive results in an LR device of more than 6,000 km from the 5 groups released from the two No.1 fire-star vehicles. These data curves are similar to the results of the LR test of the earth's soil, representing that the microorganism is breathing on the red planet. It seems that the ultimate question of life is finally settled.

However, the molecular analysis experiment of Viking failed to find organic matter. Because organic organisms are essential for life, NASA eventually announced to the public thatLR test foundConfusingly, over the next 43 years, NASA launched a series of Mars missions, trying to find habitable environments and even bring samples back to Earth for biometric testing, but never reassembled life detection devices on Mars vehicles. In this way, the Viking's positive signals failed to go any further.

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[计] Gibert

NASA still regards searching for extraterrestrial life as one of its highest priority tasks. Now, the United States is planning to send astronauts to Mars. Any possible life on Mars could be a threat to astronauts, as well as to us when they return to Earth. Therefore, life on Mars is the current core issue.

Finding life on Mars may seem hopeless, but on the other hand, it would be a miracle if there was no life on Mars at all. NASA scientist Chris.

NASA's conservative attitude toward direct microbial search experiments has been neglected.Louis The test of a gooseneck bottle completed in 1864 was how simple it was. After a high-temperature sterilized broth was contaminated with a microorganism, bubbles appeared in the soup

This standard test is also used in the LR test on Mars. In order to increase the chances of discovering extraterrestrial life, we have added several additional nutrients to the microbial nutrient solution. These nutrients are labeled with radiocarbon isotopes (once ingested and metabolized by microorganisms, they leave a mark). Therefore, if there are low-density microbial communities on Mars, these highly sensitive monitoring devices can also detect them. Thermal control similar to Pasteur's test can determine whether the label is a biological reaction or just a chemical reaction.

The Pirate's LR test attempts to detect ongoing metabolic reactions, a very simple, foolproof microbial indicator. From surface soil to microbial petri dishes, from laboratories to extreme natural conditions, such devices have been tested thousands of times and no false positive or false negative results have been reported.This strongly supports the reliability of LR Mars data.

My colleague, Patricia Ann Straat, in the LR project, has disclosed the scientific details of a large number of LR projects in the recent book. The scientific paper on LR can also be in myPersonal homepageBrowse on.

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Pirate Mars Car Pictures

In addition to the direct evidence of Martian life found by the Pirate, subsequent missions to Mars and some discoveries on Earth have also been found.A series of indirect evidence pointing to life on Mars:

  • Mars Rovers such as Pirate, Mars Pathfinder, Phoenix and Curiosity have found that surface water on Mars is enough to sustain microbes.
  • Below the rock, soil samples shielded from ultraviolet light were also positive in LR tests, indicating that the pirate's LR reaction was not caused by ultraviolet light.
  • Curiosity discovered complex organic matter on Mars, which probably contained biogenic kerogen.
  • Phoenix and Curiosity discovered that Mars might have a livable environment in ancient times, despite the current drought and barrenness.
  • The higher carbon13/carbon12 ratio in the Martian atmosphere indicates the possible existence of life activities (carbon12 is preferred by organisms);
  • Carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere should have been decomposed into carbon dioxide by ultraviolet light from the sun, but the continuous regeneration of carbon dioxide may be due to microbial metabolism.
  • Microbes on Earth can survive outside the International Space Station;
  • Methane gas was detected in the Martian atmosphere, probably from methanogenic bacteria.
  • The rapid disappearance of methane in the atmosphere of Mars requires a sink, and on Mars, this methane-sink may be a methane-oxidizing bacterium that is symbiosis with methane-producing bacteria;
  • Methane spontaneous combustion.
  • Scientists say that formaldehyde and ammonia, which represent life activities, are found in the Martian atmosphere.
  • An independent complexity analysis of LR-positive signals shows that the signals are biological sources.
  • Curiosity discovered a large-scale structure similar to stromatolite on Mars, which is the product of life. According to a data analysis, the probability of accidental formation of the above structure is only 0.04%;
  • On Mars, no factors harmful to life have been found.

All in all, we have positive results from widely used microbial tests; the results of the LR test have been repeated many times in two Pirate Mars vehicles; and for 43 years, no theory or experiment has been able to find an abiotic explanation for the results of the LR test.

So what are the evidences for the impossibility of life on Mars? Surprisingly,None of them 。 At the same time, laboratory studies have shown that some terrestrial microorganisms can survive and grow on Mars.

NASA has announced that the 2020 Mars exploration program will not include life exploration. According to the existing scientific agreement, I think life exploration experiments should be carried out as much as possible on the next Mars mission. My collaborators and I have proposed, both formally and informally, that carrying them on the Mars vehicle will be able toDetection of chirality of metabolitesLR test device to confirm the existence of life. In abiotic chemical reactions, the chiral nature of organic molecules is not distinguished, but all organisms distinguish chiral.

In addition, the detection of chirality can confirm and extend the discovery of the Pirate. It can determine whether any detected life is similar to life on Earth or has a different origin. This in itself is an important basic scientific discovery. A small, portable chiral LR device has been designed, and it can easily be transformed into a Mars Rover payload.

At the same time, I hope a team of scientists will re-examine all the evidence related to Pirate, as well as evidence of subsequent Mars exploration. This team may come to the conclusion that the Pirate's LR experiment did find life. In any case, this study provides important guidance for NASA to find extraterrestrial life, which can not be ignored. (translation: Wu Fei, Shi Yunlei)

Note: This article only conveys the author's own views, and does not represent the position of global science or scientific Americans.

Link to the original text:

Https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/im-convinced-we-found-evidence-of-life-on-mars-in-the-1970s/

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