On December 27, 2018, the basic system of Beidou global satellite navigation system officially provided basic navigation services to the world. General secretary Xi Jinping evaluated the congratulations of the thirteenth session of the International Committee of the global navigation satellite system: "the Beidou system has become one of the important achievements of China in the past 40 years of reform and opening up."
However, in the early years, there was still a useless argument about China's Beidou satellite navigation system.
In 2009, the meeting of the International Committee on Global Satellite Navigation Systems was held in St. Petersburg, Russia. At the meeting, a representative of a country said bluntly, "there are already 100 satellites in the air. Why should China build satellites?" "the frequency overlap between China's satellite navigation systems and those of other countries will only increase noise and disrupt the space order and make no contribution to the international community."
Such a speech deeply stung Academician Yang Yuanxi, deputy chief designer of Beidou satellite navigation system.
After listening to the representative's speech, Yang Yuanxi got up and went to the meeting and said, "I have a real calculation here to tell you how much China's Beidou navigation system has contributed."
"I use the actual GPS constellations, GLONASS constellations, Galileo constellations, plus China's Beidou constellations. Even if I put Beidou in the first place, the average contribution rate of China's Beidou to the world is over 23.4%, and the lowest is 22.6%. How can I call it no contribution?" In a series of real data and counter questions, Yang Yuanxi finished the whole report.
After the meeting, Yang Yuanxi published his report in an international journal, telling the world how much China has contributed. Since then, the theory of the uselessness of China's Big Dipper has disappeared.
From the concept of double star positioning system to Beidou No.1 system from scratch, and then to Beidou No.2 system officially providing regional services, until today Beidou No.3 goes to the world with a high spirited attitude, China's "three step" development strategy, after nearly 40 years of extraordinary years, has come out of a unique path of independent innovation, unity and cooperation, overcoming difficulties and pursuing excellence.
"The only way is to be a giant"
▲ application simulation diagram of Beidou satellite navigation system
China's research on satellite navigation and positioning can be traced back to the 1960s and 1970s, but due to the constraints of the technical conditions and the background of the times, it was 1983 that China really proposed to develop navigation satellites.
In that year, academician Chen Fangyun, the founder of "two bombs and one satellite" and one of the founders of satellite measurement technology in China, put forward the idea of developing a two satellite rapid navigation system, that is, using two geostationary orbit communication satellites to achieve regional rapid navigation and positioning.
At that time, Chen Fangyun and American scientist G.K. Professor O'Neill coincidentally produced the design concept of integrating navigation positioning and data communication, and carried out the conceptual research of the system from 1985 to 1990. When O'Neill heard that Chinese astronauts were doing the same research, he was shocked. However, the U.S. research program soon died because of technical and financial problems.
At that time, after breaking through the key technologies such as central station and user machine, Chinese astronauts carried out the demonstration test of double satellite positioning using communication satellite, which proved the correctness and feasibility of the technical system of Beidou satellite navigation test system.
At the same time, sun Jiadong, then the former Vice Minister of the Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and general Shen Rongjun, then the deputy director of the national defense science and engineering Commission, keenly found that the satellite navigation and positioning system with independent intellectual property rights was crucial to national security and military support. Later, they wrote a joint letter to Cao Gangchuan, then member of the Central Military Commission and Minister of the general equipment department, explaining their analysis of the significance of the development of the national satellite navigation system and their suggestions for implementation. The state attaches great importance to and supports this, effectively promoting the development of China's satellite navigation system.
Under the active promotion of various forces, in 1994, China's satellite navigation project was approved and named after the "Beidou star" used by the ancestors of the Chinese people to identify the direction. Beidou satellite positioning and navigation system was officially launched, and sun Jiadong was appointed chief designer of the project. Since then, China has started the development and construction of the first generation of satellite navigation system.
October 31, 2000 is a memorable day in the development history of China's satellite navigation system. At 0:02, China's Long March 3A carrier rocket lifted China's first Beidou navigation test satellite into the vast night sky at Xichang Satellite Launch Center. 27 minutes later, the command hall received the good news from Xi'an Satellite TT & C Center: the separation of the satellite and the arrow, and the satellite entered the predetermined orbit. The command hall erupted with prolonged applause and cheers.
▲ before the launch of the first Beidou test satellite on October 31, 2000, Wang Liheng (right), general manager of Aerospace Science and technology group, Ma Xingrui (middle), deputy general manager, and Li Zuhong (left), general director of the satellite discussed technical issues together
"Beidou satellite navigation system is a regional navigation system that provides satellite navigation information all day and all day. It mainly provides navigation services for road transportation, railway transportation, marine operation and other fields. The successful launch of the first star of Beidou navigation system has solved the problem that China's autonomous satellite navigation system has emerged from scratch, and will play a positive role in promoting China's national economic construction. " 19 years ago, China Aerospace daily published a passage summarizing the significance of the satellite.
Only 50 days after the first Beidou navigation test satellite was successfully put into orbit, at the end of the millennium, the changsanjia rocket sent the second Beidou navigation test satellite into geosynchronous orbit, marking that China has become the third country in the world with an independent satellite navigation system after the United States and Russia. "The development of Beidou was done by the Chinese themselves. The only way "giant" can block our technology and prevent us from standing on our shoulders is to become a giant. " Li Zuhong, commander in chief of the Beidou satellite navigation test system at that time, said.
On May 25, 2003, the third Beidou navigation test satellite was successfully launched. As a backup satellite and the first two working satellites, Beidou-1, China's complete first generation satellite navigation system, was formed.
That disaster made "Beidou" a household name
With the successful completion of the first step plan, Beidou satellite navigation system project has officially turned from the experimental stage to the implementation stage. In September 2004, the construction of Beidou satellite navigation system was officially launched. Sun Jiadong, who was appointed as the chief designer of the satellite, recalled: "there is a very important intermediate link in China's satellite navigation project, that is, the construction of regional navigation system."
At that time, many countries spared no expense to develop global satellite navigation system, while China's Beidou-1 only solved the problem of autonomous satellite navigation system from scratch. According to academician Yang Jiagong, the founder of China's "two bombs and one star", China's civil satellite navigation market is broad and has huge potential economic benefits, which is an important factor for sustainable development in the future.
At the Beidou Navigation System Application Forum in 2004, Yang Jialong, 85, hurried to Haikou to attend the meeting and published an academic report entitled "developing navigation satellites and applications to start a complete benefits enhancement system". "It is very necessary to establish an enhanced system in the Asia Pacific region as a simulation and information fusion system in the near to long term." Yang said.
At the end of the forum, Yang exchanged views with Tu Shancheng, Tong Kai, Wang Liheng, Qi Faren and Zhang Luqian. After collective discussion, they drafted the proposal on promoting the application of Beidou navigation system. In the report, six academicians made suggestions on the development of China's independent satellite navigation system. The proposal was finalized on February 2, 2005. After it was issued on February 3, it was approved by Premier Wen Jiabao at that time on February 4.
The relevant departments and bureaus of the national development and Reform Commission actively implemented the instructions of the State Council, not only listed the construction of Beidou navigation system as the national infrastructure planning, but also solved the financial problem, creating favorable conditions for the independent innovation of Beidou satellite navigation system application.
From the start of the project in 2004, Beidou system has entered a four-year initial sample development stage. During this period, the satellite system completed the research and development tasks of four primary samples and one flight test satellite, conquered many key technologies such as onboard atomic clock, high-precision satellite to ground time comparison, monitoring receiver and user terminal, and laid a foundation for Beidou construction and sustainable development. After more than ten years of engineering practice, a large number of engineering management and technical personnel have been trained, and a number of talents in system application have been trained, which provides a guarantee for the future development of the system.
With the combination of time, land and people, the second generation of Beidou satellite navigation system in China develops rapidly.
On April 14, 2007, the first Beidou navigation application satellite was successfully launched, which started the construction of Beidou regional navigation system. Although the construction of Beidou System in China started 20 years later than that of GPS in the United States, its design scheme and technical indicators are at the forefront of the world.
On April 14, 2007, the first beidou-2 satellite was successfully launched
In 2008, Wenchuan earthquake shocked the world. At about 10:00 p.m. on the night of the earthquake, the first batch of armed police officers and soldiers arrived in the earthquake stricken area, and used Beidou satellite navigation system user terminals to send back real-time disaster data overnight, sending out the first wave of life emergency for the earthquake stricken area. The disaster made "Beidou" a household name.
2010 is also an unusual year for China's Beidou. This year, China's Beidou satellite navigation system ushered in five "new members" in a row, and the system took shape in space. On May 19 of the same year, ran Chengqi, director of China Beidou satellite navigation system special management office, announced that "Beidou satellite navigation system is committed to providing high-quality positioning, navigation and timing services to global users. China is willing to cooperate with other countries to jointly develop the cause of satellite navigation. "
Since that year, China has ushered in the high-density launch period of Beidou navigation satellite. In 2011, the basic system of Beidou regional satellite navigation system was completed, which has the ability to provide initial services to most regions of China; on October 25, 2012, all 16 members of Beidou satellite navigation system were launched; on December 27, the press office of the State Council held a press conference on Beidou satellite navigation system, declaring that Beidou satellite navigation system is an independent construction of China. The global satellite navigation system, which operates independently and is compatible with other satellite navigation systems in the world, can provide high-precision and reliable positioning, navigation and time service for all kinds of users all day and all day around the world.
So far, the "three-step" strategy of Beidou satellite navigation system construction has successfully completed the second step of the system construction goal, Beidou No.2 satellite navigation system, that is, Beidou regional satellite navigation system construction.
Serving more than 50 countries and more than 3 billion people
On November 5, 2017, less than half a month after the successful closing of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Xichang Satellite Launch Center sent a happy report that China's Beidou was once again on the March. The first and second networking satellites of beidou-3 were launched, which opened the curtain of global networking of Beidou satellite navigation system. The "three-step" development strategy of Beidou satellite navigation system entered the "last step".
Standing on the shoulders of the previous two generations of constellations, the "third step" of China's Beidou is extremely confident. The beidou-3 project, which was set up in December 2009, began to try to sprint and lead the way. New "artifact" such as inter satellite link, global search and rescue payload, and a new generation of atomic clock appeared, greatly improving the overall performance of the satellite.
The "18 stars a year" in 2018 made Beidou refresh the speed of satellite development and production in China, and the strategic path of "three steps" has gradually changed from "victory in sight" to "dream come true". The fifth and sixth satellites of beidou-3 launched on February 12 achieved 100% localization from the single plane level; the Beidou twin satellites launched on September 19 increased the international search and rescue system and global short message load for the first time, marking the official trend of Beidou satellite navigation system to the world; on November 1, China's first geosynchronous orbit (GEO) satellite launched successfully, becoming the most powerful guide in the world In November 19th, the basic system constellation of Beidou three was successfully completed. In December 27th, the basic system of Beidou global navigation satellite system formally provided basic navigation services to the "one belt and one road" and the whole world.
On May 17 this year, Beidou Project II was successfully completed, and the last backup star of the system was successfully in place; on September 23, Beidou network III began to over upgrade from the basic system to the complete system... Beidou constellation alternately carries out networking and network supplement, which paves the way for China's navigation system to move smoothly from "regional" to "global".
From the first Beidou navigation test satellite in 2000 to the 47th and 48th satellites of Beidou navigation system launched on September 23, 2019, the Chinese have successfully launched 52 Beidou satellites in 19 years.
At present, the on orbit satellite and ground system of Beidou System in China are working stably. After global test and evaluation, the system performance meets the expectation and has global service capability. According to the plan, China will complete the global networking construction of beidou-3 in 2020, and build a more ubiquitous, integrated and intelligent national integrated positioning and navigation (pnt) system with Beidou system as the core in 2035.
Sun Jiadong pointed out that global satellite navigation system has become an indispensable spatial information infrastructure in the economic society, which will benefit human life and economic development. China's Beidou, which serves more than 50 countries and more than 3 billion people, has become an important cooperation project in China's foreign exchanges, significantly improving China's international status and influence.
In July 2015, sun Jiadong went to Xichang Satellite Launch Center to guide Beidou navigation satellite launch
"No matter how high the mountain is, you can always climb to the top; no matter how long the road is, you can reach it." General secretary Xi Jinping's remarks just tell the secret of the success of the long Beidou road. Beidou provides global service, which is a big step of Beidou construction and a new starting point of Beidou development. As sun Jiadong said, "Beidou must go global, because satellites themselves are global."
Beidou life, navigation world
Under this starry sky, Beidou people have created one miracle after another, pushing China's satellite navigation industry to the top of the world, and saluting the pioneer of Beidou navigation!